Division of Parasites

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Division of Parasites
Museum of Southwestern Biology
1 University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131
Division of Parasites
Museum of Southwestern Biology
CERIA Building 83 Room 204
302 Yale Blvd NE
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131


Publications from the Division of Parasites


Loker, E.S. and Hofkin, B.V. 2023. Parasitology: a conceptual approach. Second Edition. CRC Press,  647p. 

Babbitt CR, Laidemitt MR, Mutuku MW, Oraro PO, Brant SV, Mkoji GM, Loker ES. 2023. Bulinus snails in the Lake Victoria Basin in Kenya: systematics and their role as hosts for schistosomes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 17(2): e0010752, doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010752


Diaz Percent SC, Brant SV, Locke SA. 2022. First integrative study of the diversity and specificity of metacercariae of Posthodiplostomum Dubois, 1936 from native and introduced fishes in the Caribbean. Parasitology 1-6.

Lorenti E, Brant SV, Gilardoni C, Diaz JI, Cremonte F. 2022. Two new genera and species of avian schistosomes from Argentina with proposed recommendations and discussion of the polyphyletic genus Gigantobilharzia (Trematoda, Schistosomatidae). Parasitology DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182022000130

Davis NE, Blair D, Brant SV. 2022. Diversity of Trichobilharzia in New Zealand with a new species and a redescription, and their likely contribution to cercarial dermatitis. Parasitology 149: 380-395.

Loker ES, DeJong RJ, Brant SV. 2022. Scratching the itch: updated perspectives on the schistosomes responsible for swimmer’s itch around the world. Pathogens 11, no. 5: 587. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050587. PMID: 35631108; PMCID: PMC9144223

Ebbs ET, Loker ES, Bu L, Locke SA, Tkach VT, Devkota R, Flores VR, Pinto HA, Brant SV. 2022. Phylogenomics and diversification of Schistosomatidae based on targeted sequence capture of ultra-conserved elements. Pathogens. 2022 Jul 5;11(7):769. doi: 10.3390/pathogens11070769. PMID: 35890014; PMCID: PMC9321907.

Pinto HA, Mati TVL, Melo AL, Brant SV. 2022. A putative new genus of avian schistosome transmitted by Biomphalaria straminea (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Brazil, with a discussion on the potential involvement in human cercarial dermatitis. Parasitology International 90: 102607. doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2022.102607.

Lijing Bu, Daibin Zhong, Lijun Lu, Eric S Loker, Guiyun Yan, Si-Ming Zhang. 2022. Compatibility between snails and schistosomes: insights from new genetic resources, comparative genomics, and genetic mapping. Commun Biol 5, 940 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03844-5. PMID: 36085314; PMCID: PMC9463173

Nathan C Lo, Fernando Schemelzer Moraes Bezerra, Daniel G Colley, Fiona M Fleming, Mamoun Homeida, Narcis Kabatereine, Fatma M Kabole, Charles H King, Margaret A Mafe, Nicholas Midzi, Francisca Mutapi, Joseph R Mwanga, Reda MR Ramzy, Fadjar Satrija, J Russell Stothard, Mamadou Souncalo Traoré, Joanne P Webster, Jürg Utzinger, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Anthony Danso-Appiah, Paolo Eusebi, Eric S Loker, Charles O Obonyo, Reginald Quansah, Song Liang, Michel Vaillant, M Hassan Murad, Paul Hagan, Amadou Garba. 2022. Review of 2022 WHO guidelines on the control and elimination of schistosomiasis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 22: 11. doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00221-3

Martina R Laidemitt, Alyssa M Gleichsner, Christopher D Ingram, Steven D Gay, Elizabeth M Reinhart, Martin W Mutuku, Polycup O Oraro, Dennis J Minchella, Gerald M Mkoji, Eric S Loker, Michelle L Steinauer. 2022. Host preference of field-derived Schistosoma mansoni is influenced by snail host compatibility and infection status. Ecosphere. 2022 Apr;13(4): e4004. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.4004. Epub 2022 Apr 8. PMID: 36285193; PMCID: PMC9592064.

Si-Ming Zhang, Lijing Bu, Lijun Lu, Caitlin Babbitt, Coen M Adema, Eric S Loker 2022. Comparative mitogenomics of freshwater snails of the genus Bulinus, obligatory vectors of Schistosoma haematobium, causative agent of human urogenital schistosomiasis. Sci Rep 12, 5357. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-09305-7

Lu Lijun, Bu Lijing, Zhang Si-Ming, Buddenborg Sarah K., Loker Eric S. 2022. An Overview of Transcriptional Responses of Schistosome-Susceptible (M line) or -Resistant (BS-90) Biomphalaria glabrata Exposed or Not to Schistosoma mansoni Infection. Frontiers in Immunology 12:805882. DOI=10.3389/fimmu.2021.805882

WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. (Loker is a contributing author).


Alda P, Lounnas M, Vázquez AA, Ayaqui R, Calvopiña M, Celi-Erazo M, Dillon RT Jr, González Ramírez LC, Loker ES, Muzzio-Aroca J, Nárvaez AO, Noya O, Pereira AE, Robles LM, Rodríguez-Hidalgo R, Uribe N, David P, Jarne P, Pointier JP, Hurtrez-Boussès S. 2021. Systematics and geographical distribution of Galba species, a group of cryptic and worldwide freshwater snails. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2021 Apr;157:107035. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2020.107035. Epub 2020 Dec 4. PMID: 33285288.

Anderson, L.C., Loker, E.S. & Wearing, H.J. 2021. Modeling schistosomiasis transmission: the importance of snail population structure. Parasites Vectors 14, 94 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04587-8

Flores V, Viozzi G, Casalins L, Loker ES, Brant SV. 2021. A new schistosome (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) from the nasal tissue of South America black-necked swans, Cygnus melancoryphus (Anatidae) and the endemic pulmonate snail Chilina gibbosa. Zootaxa. 2021 Mar;4948(3):zootaxa.4948.3.5. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4948.3.5.

Kamel, B., Lu, Lijun, Laidemitt M, Babbitt C, Weinbaum OL, Mkoji G and Loker ES. 2021. Detecting and identifying Schistosoma infections in snails and aquatic habitats: a review. Prepared at request and with support of the World Health Organization. PLos NTD: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009175

Mutuku, M.W., Martina R. Laidemitt, Johanne M. Spaan, Ibrahim N. Mwangi, Horace Ochanda, Michelle L. Steinauer, Eric S. Loker and Gerald M. Mkoji. 2021. Comparative vectorial competence of Biomphalaria sudanica and B. choanomphala, snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, from transmission hotspots in Lake Victoria, western Kenya, Journal of Parasitology 107: 349-357. 

Liu, S., Zhang, S-M, Buddenborg, S.K., Loker, E.S. and Bonning, B.C. Virus-derived sequences from the transcriptomes of two snail vectors of schistosomiasis, Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus from Kenya. PeerJ: 2021 Nov 15;9:e12290. doi: 10.7717/peerj.12290. PMID: 34820163; PMCID: PMC8601052.

Loker, E.S.,  Scott Z. Dolginow, Suzanne Pape, Colin D. Topper, Pilar Alda, Jean P. Pointier, Erika T. Ebbs, Melissa C. Sanchez, Guilherme G. Verocai, Randall J. DeJong, Sara V. Brant and Martina R. Laidemitt. 2021. An outbreak of canine schistosomiasis in Utah: Acquisition of a new snail host (Galba humilis) by Heterobilharzia americana, a pathogenic parasite on the move, One Health 13,100280,ISSN 2352-7714, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100280.


Lu, L., Loker, E.S., Zhang, S-M., Buddenborg, S.K. and Bu, Lijing. 2020. Genome-wide discovery, and computational and transcriptional characterization of an AIG gene family in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector for Schistosoma mansoni. BMC Genomics (2020) 21: article 190 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6534-z PMC7053062

Allan, F., Ame, S.M., Yves-Nathan, Tian-Bi, T. Hofkin, B.V., Webster, B.L., Diakite, N.R.,

N’Goran, E.K., Kabole, F., Khamis, I.S., Gouvras, A.N., Emery, A.M., Pennance, T., Rabone, M., Kinung’hi, S., Hamidou, A.A., Mkoji, G.M., McLaughlin, J.P., Kuris, A.M., Loker, E.S., Knopp, S. and Rollinson, D. 2020. Snail-related contributions from the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Program including xenomonitoring, focal mollusciciding, biological control, and modeling. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 103: 66-79. PMC7351297

Laidemitt, M.R., Sarah K Buddenborg, Lowell L. Lewis, Lionel E. Michael, Maria Jesus Sanchez Martin, Reynold Hewitt and Eric S Loker. (2020) Schistosoma mansoni vector snails in Antigua and Montserrat, with snail-related considerations pertinent to a declaration of elimination of human schistosomiasis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0588. PMC7695099

Lu, Lijun, Loker, E.S., Adema, C., Zhang, Si-Ming, and Bu, Lijing. 2020. Genomic and transcriptional analysis of genes containing fibrinogen and IgSF domains in the schistosome vector Biomphalaria glabrata, with emphasis on the differential responses of snails susceptible or resistant to Schistosoma mansoni. PLoS NTD 14 (10): e0008780. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008780. PMC7588048


Laidemitt, M.R., Brant, S.V., Mutuku, M.W., Mkoji, G.M. and Loker, E.S. 2019. The diverse echinostomes from East Africa: with a focus on species that use Biomphalaria and Bulinus as intermediate hosts. Acta Tropica. 193: 38-49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.01.025 PMC6461134

Mutuku, M.W., Laidemitt, M.R., Beechler, B.R., Mwangi, I.N., Otiato, F.O., Agola, E.L., Ochanda, H., Kamel, B., Mkoji, G.M., Steinauer, M.L., Loker, E.S., 2019. A search for snail-related answers to explain differences in response of Schistosoma mansoni to praziquantel treatment among responding and persistent hotspot villages along the Kenyan shore of Lake Victoria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101, 65-77. PMC6609173

Buddenborg SK, Kamel B, Hanelt B, Bu L, Zhang S-M, Mkoji GM, and Loker, E.S. 2019. The in vivo transcriptome of Schistosoma mansoni in the prominent vector species Biomphalaria pfeifferi with supporting observations from Biomphalaria glabrata. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13(9): e0007013. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007013. PMC6797213

Buddenborg, S.K., Kamel, B., Bu, L., Zhang, S.M., Mkoji, G.M., Loker, E.S., 2019. Transcriptional responses of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Schistosoma mansoni following exposure to niclosamide, with evidence for a synergistic effect on snails following exposure to both stressors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 13, e0006927. PMC6936870

Laidemitt, M.R., Anderson, L.C., Wearing, H.J., Mutuku, M.W., Mkoji, G.M., Loker, E.S., 2019. Antagonism between parasites within snail hosts impacts the transmission of human schistosomiasis. eLife 2019;8:e50095 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.50095 PMC6917487


Alda, P., Lounnas, M., Vázquez, A.A., Ayaqui, R., Calvopiña, M., Celi-Erazo, M., Dillon Jr, R.T., Jarne, P., Loker, E.S., Muñiz Pareja, F.C., Muzzio-Aroca, J., Nárvaez, A.O., Noya, O., Robles, L.M., Rodríguez-Hidalgo, R., Uribe, N., David, P., Pointier, J.-P. and Hurtrez-Boussès, S. 2018. A new multiplex PCR assay to distinguish among three cryptic Galba species, intermediate hosts of Fasciola hepatica. Veterinary Parasitology 251: 101-105.  PMID: 29426464

Colley, D.G. and Loker, E.S. 2018. Editorial. New tools for old questions: How strictly human are “human schistosomes” – and does it matter? The Journal of Infectious Diseases, jiy030, https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy030 PMID: 29365121

Zhang, Si-Ming, Lijing Bu, Martina Laidemitt, Lijun Lu, Martin Mutuku, Gerald Mkoji, and Eric S. Loker. 2018. Complete mitochondrial and rDNA complex sequences of important vector species of Biomphalaria, obligatory hosts of the human-infecting blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Scientific Reports. 8:7341. DOI:10. 10.1038/s41598-018-25463-z.


Loker, Eric S. and Bayne, C.J. 2018. Molluscan immunobiology: Challenges in the Anthropocene Epoch, E. L. Cooper (ed.), Advances in Comparative Immunology © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76768-0_12, pp.343-407.

Ebbs, E.T., Loker, E.S., and Brant, S.V. 2018. Range-wide phylogeography and population genetics of the globally invasive snail Physa acuta, and its potential role as a host to larval trematodes. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 18:103, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1208-z. PMC6029401


Pinto HA, Pulido-Murillo EA, de Melo AL, Brant SV. 2017. Putative new genera and species of avian schistosomes potentially involved in human cercarial dermatitis in the Americas, Europe and Africa. Acta Tropica (IN PRESS).

Brant SV, Loker ES, Casalins L, and Flores V. 2017. Phylogenetic placement of a schistosome from an unusual marine snail host, the false limpet (Siphonaria lessoni) and gulls (Larus dominicanus) from Argentina with a brief review of marine schistosomes from snails. Journal of Parasitology 103:75-82.

Laidemitt, M.R., Zawadzki, E.T., Brant, S.V., Mutuku, M.W., Mkoji, G.M., and Loker, E.S. 2017. Loads of trematodes: Discovering hidden diversity of paramphistomoids in Kenyan ruminants. Parasitology 144: 131–147. M. Lounnas, A. C. Correa, A. A. Vázquez, A. Dia, J. S. Escobar, A. Nicot, J. Arenas, R. Ayaqui, M. P. Dubois, T. Gimenez, A. Gutiérrez, C. González‐Ramírez, O. Noya, L. Prepelitchi, N. Uribe, C. Wisnivesky‐Colli, M. Yong, P. David, E. S. Loker, P. Jarne, J. P. Pointier, S. Hurtrez‐Boussès. 2017. Self-fertilization, long-distance flash invasion and biogeography shape the population structure of Pseudosuccinea columella at the worldwide scale. Molecular Ecology 26: 887-903.

Martin W. MutukuLu, Lijun, Otiata, F. O., Mwangi, I. N., Kinuthia, J. M., Maina, G. M. Laidemitt, M. R., Lelo, E. A., Ochanda, H., Loker E. S., and Mkoji, G. M. 2017. Comparison of Kenyan Biomphalaria pfeifferi and B. sudanica as vectors for Schistosoma mansoni, including a discussion of the need to better understand the effects of snail breeding systems on transmission. Journal of Parasitology 103: 669-676.

Alberson, N. R., Rosser, T. G., Buddenborg, S. K., Khoo, L. H. Loker, E. S., Richardson, T. D., Woodyard, E. T., Wise, D. J., Pote, L. M., Griffin, M. J. 2017. North and south American haplotypes of Drepanocephalus auritus (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) are released from Biomphalaria havanensis (Mollusa: Planorbidae) inhabiting catfish aquaculture ponds in Mississippi, U. S. A. Comparative Parasitology 84: 87-101.

Lounnas, M., Ana Cristina Correa, Pilar Alda, PhD, Patrice David, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Manuel Calvopina, Yannick Caron, Maritza Celi-Erazo, Dung Thi Bui, Philippe Jarne, Eric Loker, Oscar Noya; , Richar Rodríguez-Hidalgo; , Céline Toty, Nelson Uribe, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Sylvie Hurtrez-Boussès. 2017. Population structure and genetic diversity in the invasive freshwater snail Galba schirazensis (Lymnaeidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology
DOI: 10.1139/cjz-2016-0319


Devkota R, Brant SV, Loker ES. 2016. A genetically distinct Schistosoma from Radix luteola from Nepal related to Schistosoma turkestanicum: a phylogenetic study of schistosome and snail host. Acta Tropica 164: 45-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.08.015

Červená B, Brant SV, Fairet E, Shirley MH, Petrželková KJ, Modrý D. 2016.  Schistosoma mansoni in Gabon: Emerging or Ignored? The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95: 849-851. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0446

Brant SV, Loker ES, Casalins L, and Flores V. 2016. Phylogenetic placement of a schistosome from an unusual marine snail host, the false limpet (Siphonaria lessoni) and gulls (Larus dominicanus) from Argentina with a brief review of marine schistosomes from snails. Journal of Parasitology 103: 75-82. https://doi.org/10.1645/16-43

Ebbs ET, Loker ES, Davis NE, Flores V, Veleizan A, Brant SV. 2016. Schistosomes with wings: how host phylogeny and ecology shape the global distribution of Trichobilharzia querquedulae (Schistosomatidae). International Journal of Parasitology 46: 669-677. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2016.04.009

Makarikov A, Hobert, EP. 2016. Broadening diversity in the Arostrilepis horrida comlex: Arostrilepis kontrimavichusi n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae) in the western red-backed vole, Myodes californicus (Merriam) (Cricetidae: Arvicolinae) from temperate latitudes of the Pacific Northwest, North America. Systematic Parasitology 93:467-77. doi: 10.1007/s11230-016-9640-1

Devkota R, Brant SV, Loker ES. 2016. The Schistosoma indicum species group in Nepal: presence of a new lineage of schistosome and use of the Indoplanorbis exustus species complex of snail hosts. International Journal for Parasitology 45:857-870 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2015.07.008.

Fakhar M, Ghobaditara M, Brant SV, Karamian M, Gohardehi S, Bastani R. 2016. Phylogenetic analysis of nasal avian schistosomes (Trichobilharzia) from aquatic birds in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Parasitology International 65:151-158. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2015.11.00

Caffara M, Locke SA, Cristanini C, Davidovich N, Markavich MP, Fioravanti ML. 2016. A combined morphometric and molecular approach to identifying metacercariae of Euclinostomum heterostomum (Digenea: Clinostomidae). Journal of Parasitology 102: 239-248 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/15-823.

Lee L, Wallace R, Clyde V, Gendron-Fitzpatrick A, Sibley S, Stuchin M, Lauck M, O'Connar D, Makao M, Lavikainen A, Hoberg EP, Goldberg T. 2016 Definitive hosts of a fata Versteria species (Cestoda? Taeniidae) in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22:4  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2204.151446.

Rothenburger J, Hoberg EP, Wagner B. 2016. First report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada. Comparative Parasitology 83: 111-116 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1654/1525-2647-83.1.111.

Ernst CM, Hanelt B, Buddle CM. 2016. Parasitism of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a new species of hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada. Journal of Parasitology 102: 327-335  doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1645/15-863

Harkins C, Shannon R, Papes M, Schmidt-Rhaesa A, Hanelt B, Bolek MG. 2016. Using Gordiid cysts to discover the hidden diversity, potential distribution, and new species of Gordiids (Phylum Nematomorpha). Zootaxa 4088: 4.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4088.4.3